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Cultivo de la berenjena

EN bORRADOR:

Cultivo de la Berenjena


La berenjena (Solanum melongena) es una planta anual del género Solanum dentro de la familia de las solanáceas.
Su planta presenta tallo erecto, velludo y ramificado. Puede ser espinoso, con una altura que varía entre los 3 y los 6 dm. Es frágil y se parten con facilidad, si no está entutorado, cuando se carga de frutos.
Las hojas son de enteras hasta profundamente lobadas, grandes y con el envés cubierto de una vellosidad grisácea estrellado-pubescente; las nervaduras de las hojas tienen pequeñas espinas.
Las flores son péndulas, grandes y de color violeta de 5 cm de ancho en promedio; tienen forma de estrella de 5 hasta 8 puntas, e igual número de estambres. El cáliz, espinoso y con 5-9 lóbulos, perdura y crece mucho durante el desarrollo del fruto.
Es una planta muy exigente en luminosidad, requiere de 10 a 12 horas de luz. Soporta bien las temperaturas elevadas siempre que haya una humedad adecuada y es muy sensible al frío, temperatura mínima biológica (10 a 12 °C) y la máxima (40 a 45 °C), la humedad relativa óptima oscila entre el 50% y el 65%. La semilla para la siembra se extrae de los frutos maduros.


Plagas de la berenjena:

El escarabajo de la patata:

El escarabajo de la patata o dorífora (Leptinotarsa decemlineata) es un coleóptero de la familia de los crisomélidos de amplia distribución mundial, asociado a los lugares de cultivo y almacenamiento de patatas, sobre los que actúa como plaga.
escarabajo de la patata
Escarabajo de la patata.


Para evitar o combatir la plaga del escarabajo sobre tomates, berenjenas o patatas, debe efectuarse rotación de cultivos, permitir la existencia e enemigos naturales, sobre todo aves insectivoras mediante el asiento de setos o arbolillos. La extracción de la plaga por medios manuales es poco eficaz. 
Las plagas de escarabajo se pueden combatir mediante aceite de neem o bacillus thuringiensis.





Referencias:


http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solanum_melongena



Eggplant, is cultivated for the immature fruits which are roasted, fried, stuffed, cooked, pickled, or processed. Preferred types are the long, purple varieties with green calyx, but some regions also prefer the long or round, green-colored varieties. It is grown in 18,000 ha all over the country, but major producers are Ilocos, Central Luzon, and Southern Tagalog.

Varieties

  • Batangas long purple
  • Bulakea
  • Casino
  • Claveria KS
  • Dumaguete
  • Jackpot
  • Long purple
  • Tanauan KS
  • Llamado

Climatic Requirements

Eggplant can be grown from low to mid elevations throughout the year. Production is best, however, during the dry, cool months in sandy loam soil. Clay loam to clayey soils, with pH of 5.5-6.5 can also be used.

Land Preparation

Prepare land by plowing and harrowing twice. Make furrows 1.0 m apart. Spread manure along rows or hills at 1-2 handfuls per hill. Apply complete fertilizer (14-14-14) at 10-15 g/hill and cover lightly with soil.


Planting

Transplanting. Irrigate area before transplanting. Plant one seedling per hill at a distance of 0.5-1.0 m depending on variety. Provide 1.0-m-long stake to prevent lodging. Irrigate by furrow every 7-14 days depending on season and soil type.Side-dress with urea at 10 g/hill every 2-4 weeks during the vegetative stage. Use equal parts urea and 0-0-60 at the start of fruiting.Weed 2-3 times during the growing season, or as necessary. Practice mulching to minimize weed growth and maintain uniform soil moisture.


Pest Management

Avoid monocropping. Plant different varieties in one area. Intercrop with other vegetables and include repellants such as garlic, marigold, ginger, and lemon grass. In case of tip borer, remove and burn damaged shoot together with the larvae. Spray (Selecron or Trebon) at recommended rates if green leafhopper incidence is severe. Intercropping and mulching reduce the incidence of insect pests. Eggplant can be grown economically even without pesticides.

Japanese Beetle Trap and Bait 
The following bait and trap method is to be used during the height of the Japanese Beetle season.

Ingredients: 
1. cup water

* cup sugar

1. mashed banana

1. pkg yeast

Dissolve sugar and yeast in the water. Mix the well maxhed banana into the sugar water. Put all ingredients in a gallon milk jug. Place the jug (with the top off) in an area where Japanese Beetles gather. The fermentation and odor of the bait attracts the beetles which get in but not out.

For more on organic pesticides. go to http://www.esvasa.com/?q=organicpesticide.

All the best! 
Vandana 
www.esvasa.com - Your Organic Network


Harvesting

Harvest mature fruits which are shiny and soft. More frequent harvesting can reduce damage from fruit borers. Harvest all fruits including deformed and damaged ones to prevent spread of pests and diseases. Harvesting can last for 3-6 months. Several varieties can be grown for 1-2 years.


Post Harvest

Discard or bury severely infested fruits or make into compost. Grade according to market standards. Pack in crates lined with banana leaves. Do not expose to high temperatures.


Fonte: http://pakagri.blogspot.com.es/2012/05/eggplant-farming.html?goback=.gde_68088_member_120431059

Mais datos en:
http://www.infoagro.com/hortalizas/berenjena.htm



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